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                  Monitoring Network
   Hazard Map
                  Volcano Observatory


NAME OF VOLCANO:                       TAAL
LOCATION:                                         Batangas (14°00.1' N, 120°59.1' E)


Elevation: 0.311 km
Type of Volcano: Complex
Crater Lakes/Caldera/Maars:

MAIN CRATER LAKE - 1.9 km in diameter; blue-green in color, 4 m above sea level, deepest point: 76m                                                  

Taal Volcano Island has 47 craters and 4 maars

TAAL CALDERA - 25 km across and formed between 140,000 to 5,380 BP

TAAL LAKE - inside the caldera; 267 sq. km and 2 m above sea level

Adjacent Volcanic Edifice: Makiling (NE) Malepunyo (E), Batulao (W) and Macolod (SE)


Rock Type: Olivine basalt, Andesite
Tectonic Setting: Macolod Corridor
Age of Deposits: 5380+_ 170 ybp (Radiocarbon age, Listanco, 1994)


Number of Historical Eruptions: 33
Latest Eruption/Activity: 1977 Oct. 3
Eruption Type:
         1. Phreatic (e.g. 1878, 1911, 1970)
         2. Phreatomagmatic (e.g. 1749, 1965, 1966)
         3. Strombolian (e.g. 1968, 1969)
         4. Plinian (e.g. 1754)
Precursors to Eruptions:
         1. Increase in frequency of quakes with occasional felt events accompanied by rumbling sounds
         2. Increase in temperature and level of Main Crater Lake
         3. Development of new thermal areas and/or reactivation of old ones
         4. Ground swells or inflation and ground fissuring
         5. Increase in temperature of ground probe holes at Mt. Tabaro
         6. Sulfuric odor and acrid fumes
         7. Fish kills and drying up of vegetation


Type of Hazards:
               1. Base surges
               2. Ashfalls and ballistic projectiles
               3. Lava flows
               4. Seiches/Tsunamis and flooding
               5. Lakeshore landslide
               6. Fissuring and ground subsidence
Permanent Danger Zone: Entire Volcano Island
Other Buffer Zones: Lakeshore barangays of Talisay, Agoncillo, San Nicolas and Laurel
Areas To be Evacuated:

In case of an eruption similar in nature and magnitude to:

1965 ACTIVITY - entire Volcano Island and four lakeshore barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel

1911 ACTIVITY - entire Volcano Island and lakeshore barangays of Talisay, Tanauan, Agoncillo,                                         Balete, San Nicolas and Laurel

Additional areas to be evacuated shall be determined based on the development in eruptive style and location of the monitored parameters.


Volcano Observatory: Taal Volcano Observatory, Buco, Talisay - 9.7 km N of Main Crater
                                       (120°59.06’E, 14°05.10’N)
Monitoring Methods:

1. Seismic monitoring (number of volcanic quakes and tremors)
2. Visual observations
3. Ground deformation (EDM, precise leveling, tilt)
4. Main Crater Lake chemistry, temperature and level

Monitoring Stations

A – Seismic Network
     · Central Receiving & Processing Station: Taal Volcano Observatory, Buco, Talisay
     · Seismic stations: Binintiang Munti, Calauit, Main Crater and Pira-piraso
     · Repeater stations: Tagbakin, Napayung and Daang Kastila

B – Ground Deformation Network
    · EDM lines: Tagbakin (instrument site) to Calauit (2 lines), . Buco (instrument site) to Pira-piraso         (2 lines), Bilibinwang (instrument site) to Saluyan, Eruption Site (Tabaro), Alas-as
    · Precise leveling lines: Calauit, Kaygabok Alas-as, Pira-piraso
    · Electronic tilt: Daang Kastila, Calauit