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     Historical Eruptions


NAME OF VOLCANO:                             KANLAON
LOCATION:                                               Negros Oriental, approximately 36 km southeast of Bacolod City
                                                                   (10°24.7'N, 123°7.9'E)


Elevation: 2.435 km
Base Diameter: 30 km
Type of Volcano: Stratovolcano
Hotsprings: Mambucal Hot Springs ( NW slope of KV), Bucalan Hot Spring, Bungol Hot Spring
Adjacent Volcanic Edifice: Mt. Silay and Mt. Mt. Mandalagan (N of Kanlaon)


Rock Type: Pyroxene andesite with minor amounts of basalt and dacite
Tectonic Setting: Negros Volcanic Belt


Number of Historical Eruptions: 30
Latest Eruption/Activity: 2016 June 18 09:19 AM
Eruption Type:

1. Phreatic (e.g. 1985, 1992, 1993)
2. Phreatomagmatic (e.g. 1884)
3. Strombolian (e.g. 1902)

Precursors to Eruption:

1. Increase in frequency of volcanic tremors/quakes
2. Inflationary trend for geodetic measurements
3. Increased steaming activity
4. Sulfur stench observed at Cabagnaan and Mambucal
5. Increased chloride concentration and lowering of pH at Mambucal hot springs


Type of Hazards: tephra falls, pyroclastic flows and base surges, lava flows, lahar, debris avalanche and structural collapse
Permanent Danger Zone: Four (4) km radius from the summit
Other Buffer Zones:

ZONE A - area to be evacuated for Alert Level 3 covering 6 km SE-NW from the crater
ZONE B - area to be evacuated for Alert Level 4, covering 8 km SE-NW from the crater
ZONE C - area to be evacuated when eruption becomes very explosive and hazardous, covering 12 to 14 km SE-NW from the crater


Volcano Observatory: Kanlaon Volcano Observatory, La Carlota City College Campus, Bgy. Cubay, La Carlota City, Negros Occidental
Monitoring Methods:

1. Seismic monitoring
2. Ground Deformation – precise leveling, electronic distance measurement (EDM), global positioning
system (GPS), tilt
3. Gas chemistry – sulfur dioxide measurement by Correlation Spectrometer (COSPEC)
4. Visual observation

Monitoring Stations:

A – Seismic Network
· Digital: Canlaon City, Manghumay, Sto. Bama, Calvary Hill, Pinamintigan HIll
· Analog – Guintubdan, Cabagnaan, Canlaon City
B – Ground Deformation Network
· EDM Lines:
1. Cabacungan (inst. Site) to Cabagnaan
2. Kanlaon Volcano Observatory (KVO), Canlaon City (inst. Site) to Kanlaon Volcano (KV) upper slope
3. KVO (inst. Site) to KV middle slope
· Precise leveling line: Guintubdan
· GPS: Canlaon City, Guintubdan
· Dry tilt: Bgy. Pula, Canlaon City (ESE of KV), Bgy. Old Fabrica, La Castellana (S of KV)